Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform

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  • #11184
    admin
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    Next part of Nasir’s tutorial on laplace transform…

    Introduction

    Since we have established the fact that we can get the algebraic equations from differential and integral equation by using Laplace transform. To remove the undermined coefficients and variations of parameters, we use helpful Laplace transform and for the matter of fact this is most gainful for the input terms like periodic, pulsive or piecewise.

    Having boundary conditions, 0 ≤ t < ∞, we consider a function f (t) and its Laplace integral will be:
    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform

    Laplace transform has the capability of transforming time domain equations into frequency domain. We can analyze the working of interconnected LTI systems. These analyses are done in s-domain. The analysis can be made easy with the help of simulation diagrams.

    A simulation diagram is basically the pictorial representation of the systems. It shows the functioning of each component and expresses the flow of signals. A simple block diagram notation is given as:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 2

    The figure just denotes functioning parts of a sample system. The arrows show the flow signals. The point where all the signals add up, is called summing point and the takeoff works the same ways as in electrical signals. The block contains the transfer function. If we elaborate it a little more, the simulation diagram can be drawn as:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 3

    Where,

    • U(s) = input (actuating signal)
    • R(s) = reference input (command)
    • Y(s) = output (controlled variable)
    • E(s) = error signal
    • F(s) = feedback signal
    • G(s) = forward path transfer function
    • H(s) = feedback transfer function

    Types of stimulation Diagram of Laplace Transform

    There are mainly four types of stimulation diagram, which are:

    1. Single block
    2. Parallel connection(feed forward)
    3. Series connection
    4. Feedback System (closed loop system)

    1. Single Block (No Combination):

    Y(s) = G(s) U(s)

    Y(s) = G(s) U(s)

    There is just a single block working in the system. In the above system the inputs is represented by U(s), the output is represented by Y(s) and the transfer function of the block by G(s).

    2. Parallel Connection (feed forward):

    If we connect two systems say, h1(t) and h2(t) in parallel, then its simulation diagram is given as:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 5

    The overall impulse response is represented by h (t).

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 6

    3. Series Connection:

    Like parallel combination, consider two systems, h1(t) and h2(t) in series connection, their simulation diagram will be:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 7

    The overall impulse response is represented by h (t)

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 8

    4. Feedback System (closed loop system):

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 9

    Taking a system constituted of linear time-invariant system. In forward path we have h1(t) and h2(t), another linear time-invariant system in a feedback path. In time domain, we will find the output y (t)

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 10

    We can write in s-domain

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 11

    As we know that in time domain it is problematic to solve the equation and finding out the expression for h (t) so that y (t) =h (t)*x (t), also we know that we can solve an algebraic equation painlessly in s-domain to find Y(s).

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 12

    The transfer function can be attained

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 13

    We ca have either positive or negative feedback. If we have negative feedback then we will have a negative sign in front of h1(t) and H2(t) of the feedback path so that e(t)= x(t) – h2(t) * y(t), also

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 14

    Example 1:

    Considering an equation for a system:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 15

    We can draw the simulation diagram for the system as below:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 16

    For this system, the equation in s-domain after transformation will be:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 17

    with the transfer equation of feedback system, we will compare this equation, we get:

    H1(s) = 1/s

    and,

    H2(s) = 3

    Example 2:

    Consider another function whose equation is given by:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 18

    We can represent this as the cascade of two systems:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 19

    And

    Y(s) = H2(s)A(s) = (cs² + ds + e)Z(s)

    The simulation diagram of this system can be demonstrated as:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 20

    From this diagram, we can generalize the transfer function as:

    Simulation Diagrams of Laplace Transform 21

    Conclusion

    In this article we dealt with the simulation diagrams and saw how they work for particular systems. When we convert functions from time domain to algebraic equations in s-domain, block or simulation diagrams play a vital role in solving them. It is the pictorial representation of all components of a system and show the flow of signals.

    In the upcoming article we will be discussing Flow Graphs of Laplace Transform. That will be the last part of explanations of Laplace transform and then we will move to detailed examples of Laplace transform. So stay stunned for the flow graphs as they are not in any way a least important topic.

    Nasir.

    #13516
    Anonymous
    Guest

    How the Laplace Transforms and all used in applied engineering???????? Can anyone tell the practical application of LT??

    #13527
    mikecollins
    Participant

    I loved this when undertaking my
    Engineering course.

    #13536
    Anonymous
    Guest

    Thanks for laying it out so it is so easy to understand, it can be so confusing! I’m trying to study this at the moment. Cheers again

    #13654
    davejo
    Participant

    I was actually trying to simulate a complete block model of Laplace transform on Simulink recently and I faced some issues. Most annoying of which were the variable mismatches but well, that’s Simulink. I actually read both the examples and the transform of a second order equation is now a bit more easy for me to understand. 

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