Severe Saturation of Low-Ratio CTs

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    Severe Saturation of Low-Ratio CTs
    Well-established engineering practice exists for CT selection to ensure saturation freeoperation
    of protection CTs at a given short circuit level, CT burden, X/R ratio and assumed
    residual flux. In the context of this paper, it is assumed that this engineering technique is not
    applied, and severe saturation will occur for short circuits within the protected zone (motor,
    feeder, cable or bus).
    Analytical analysis of a saturated CT is not practical. Only “time to saturation” may be
    approximated with relative ease, and is used in some protection applications. More detailed
    analytical analysis is not in the realm of practical engineering.
    Computer simulations are the only efficient way to extract the required information on
    secondary signals. These are burdensome for everyday engineering in the industrial domain.
    This paper uses computer simulation to derive simple and practical analysis and engineering
    charts to address the problem.

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