Ideal Transformer On Load.

As the transformer is loaded, current I2 flows in the secondary. When this current I2 flows through N2 it produces a flux φ2 . The polarity of φ2 is such that it opposes the main flux φM. The instantaneous effect of this opposition is that φM is reduced and instantaneously the induced voltage E1 in the primary is less than V1.

Because of this voltage difference, the primary current I1 increases,

and as it passes through the primary turns N1, it produces an magneto

motive force (mmf) to counter the instantaneous reduction in φM . The effect of this increased primary mmf is to bring the flux in the core back to the original value of φM.

Therefore when the supply voltage V1 is constant, despite changes in

load current, the flux in a transformer remains at a constant value

causing a voltage E1 to be induced in the primary windings and a

voltage E2 to be induced in the secondary windings. This relationship

neglects the magnetizing current demanded by the imperfections of the

core.

PRACTICAL OR NON IDEAL TRANSFORMER