Archive for the ‘Electrical distribution’ Category

Power Transmission Systems at Medium and Low Voltage Levels (Overview)

May 21st, 2018 | 1 Comment | Posted in Electrical distribution


New article sent by one of our beloved visitors and member Yasser. This time, he chose to share an overview of Power Transmission Systems at MV and LV levels

If you too want to share writings with everybody, please send us a mail.


Electrical power passes by many stages before it reaches our homes. The power generated at the utility can’t be directly to consumers due to many technical aspects such as:

MV busbar schemes (Review)

March 5th, 2018 | 1 Comment | Posted in Electrical distribution

megaphone-blueChoosing a good bus scheme is vital for operational reliability, safety and redundancy of power supply system.

Your fellow electrical engineer K. tries to discuss busbar layout and busbar schemes as per the design of a typical substation.


Busbar(s) consist of incoming and outgoing circuits with a common point. Every circuit connected to a busbar scheme has its separate incomer, circuit breaker, isolator, potential transformer, current ratio transformer and associated switchgear. These components are arranged in a special sequence so as to trip a specific circuit in case of an abnormality.

Fuse failure supervision (supervision functions)

February 19th, 2018 | 1 Comment | Posted in Electrical distribution

Ahmed H. wanted to tell us about Supervision functions- especially Fuse failure supervision. Enjoy!

fuse failure supervision

What is fuse failure supervision?

Fuse-failure supervision is a function used to supervise the operation of the fuses responsible for protecting the secondary circuit of the potential transformer, which delivers the reduced voltage to the protection relay and voltmeters.

In relay codes and substation automation, the fuse-failure supervision function can be identified by the following symbols,

Current and auto transformers (working principle)

February 12th, 2018 | 1 Comment | Posted in Electrical distribution

As we know transformers are device for converting one AC voltage to the another AC voltage with same frequency. One transformer is made of core, primary windings and secondary windings.

In general there are two main classes voltage and power transformers. Let Milan – one of the members of the Electrical Engineering Community Blog tell us about it.

Principle of one classic transformer

Picture 1. Principle of one classic transformer


Sympathetic tripping in electrical power systems

February 9th, 2018 | 2 Comments | Posted in Electrical distribution

New article by Carlos who sometimes sends us his essays. If you too want to be published in the blog, do not hesitate to send us a mail.


Several industries and utilities have experienced circuit breakers tripping due to undesirable relay operations, producing blackouts and a decrease in their expected incomes. This situation has raised a lot of concern in managers, grid operators, and reliability and protection engineers who have carried out root cause analysis to determine the origin of the missoperation of the protection systems.

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